Tag Archives: Sagalassos

Sagalassos — Upper Agora

Of the many archaeological remains at the Turkish site of Sagalassos a good number of them are located around the Upper Agora.  An agora is a Greek term for the large open space in a typical Greek polis.

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The Upper Agora at Sagalassos
See the image below to locate structures
Click on Image to Enlarge

During the Roman period the Latin term forum is often used to refer to this space.  In both the Greek and the Roman worlds people would meet here, goods and services were offered for sale, and on their perimeters temples to a variety of deities (and often emperors), law courts (Acts 16:19), council houses (Bouleuterion), monumental water fountains (nymphaeum) and honorific monuments (touting leading citizens of a polis) were common.

SagUpperAgora03The Upper Agora at Sagalassos is no exception.  It, and surrounding structures, have been excavated and partially reconstructed—thus allowing visitors to the site to easily enter into the life of the ancient city.

It was in agoras and forums around the Roman World that philosophers would teach their students and it would have been there that the Apostle Paul (Acts 17:17), Barnabas, Silas, Phoebe, etc. would have had the opportunity to share their faith.  The term agora is used 11 times in the New Testament (9 of the uses in the Gospels).

Our Turkish friends in front of the reconstructed Nymphaeum at Sagalassos.

Click on the city names to view agoras at: Perge, Athens, Thessaloniki, Smyrna, Corinth, and Philippi.

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Sagalassos — Fountain House

People often will ask me “what is your favorite site in Turkey (or Israel, or Greece, or . . . .)?”  I have so many favorites that it is a difficult question to answer, but in Turkey, Sagalassos is one of my top  picks.

Sagalassos is a magnificent ancient city located about 80 mi. [130 km.] north of Antalya.  It was one of the largest cities of the region/district of Pisidia.  Although located in a very remote territory it was conquered by Alexander the Great and it was near one of the ancient roads that ran from Attalia (mod. Antalya)/Perge to Pisidian Antioch (Acts 13:13-14; 14:25).

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The well–preserved Hellenistic “Fountain House” on the north slope of Sagalassos.
Fountain Houses usually were built at the site of a spring
but were not as elaborate as Nymphaea
This Doric structure is partly reconstructed and actually is functional today!
Click on image to Enlarge

Among the many well–preserved remains is a partly reconstructed “Fountain House” from which the inhabitants of Sagalassos could draw water.

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Mountains in the region of Sagalassos
Click on image to Enlarge

Fountain Houses were common in ancient Greco- Roman Cities.  For example compare the ones at ancient Corinth: the “Upper Peirene Spring” on the Acrocorinth; the Peirene Fountain and the Glauke Fountain in lower Corinth; and the Lerna Spring at the Asclepion at Corinth.

Sagalassos

Sagalassos has been under excavation since 1990 by a Belgian team led by Mark Waelkens of the Catholic University of Leuven.  Because of its remoteness it is very well-preserved and Waelkens’ team has made some outstanding discoveries and has been very diligent in the preservation and restoration of the site.

The “Heroon” at Sagalassos (Turkey)

One of the monuments that dominate  the northwest corner of the Upper Agora at Sagalassos is a “Heroon.”

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The Heroon (Funerary Monument) at the northwest corner of the Upper Agora at Sagalassos—Possibly honoring Alexander the Great
Click on Image to Enlarge

A “Heroon” is a Greek term that refers to a monument that was built in honor of a hero.  It is not known to whom this Heroon was dedicated, although a head found nearby looks suspiciously like that of Alexander the Great—but the excavators believe that the monument was built during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus (27 B.C.–A.D. 17).  Continue reading

Anastylosis — Or, why is part of this photo colored blue?

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Coffers, Roof & Capitals of the Nymphaeum in the
Upper Agora at Sagalassos
ALL BUT the blue pieces (I have shaded them blue) are original pieces that were found at the foot of the Nymphaeum and were used in the reconstruction (anastylosis)

The Turkish site of Sagalassos is situated on a remote mountain slope and because of this, building stones from the site have not been carted off by locals nor were very much reused in antiquity.

Continue reading