Tag Archives: Josephus

A.D. 70 The Destruction of the Temple — Where did the Temple Treasure Go? Part 2

All visitors to Rome will have visited the Colosseum, Arch of Titus, and the Roman Forum.  But one of the places that visitors, and guides, will normally pass over are the additions to the Roman Forum called The Roman Fora.  “Fora” is plural for the cluster of Forums that  Julius Caesar, Augustus, Vespasian/Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan built  north of the more frequently visited “Roman Forum.”  Normally all of this “pile of ruins” is passed over by guides and visitors except the Column of Trajan that is so conspicuous.

The 125 ft. tall Column of Trajan at the west end of his Forum.

The Temple of Peace was located at the east end of these Fora.  It was constructed by Vespasian after his conquest of Judea and Jerusalem and dedicated in A.D. 75—images below.

View looking west at the southwest portico—where the seven columns are—and the southwest portion of the large “garden” that was west of the Temple of Peace.

In the center of the image are two parallel walls that are joined in the center of the image. This is a part of one of six such low structures. Some believe that these were actually raised gardens and had a small aqueduct flowing on top of them. A partial one is seen to the right of this one.

The Temple of Peace and this Forum were built by Vespasian. It was financed from spoils from the First Jewish Revolt (A.D. 66–70) and was inaugurated in A.D. 75 to commemorate the end of the civil wars that followed the death of Nero. The “Forum” was actually a garden and the Temple of Peace and associated rooms and Porticos housed works of art, a library, and precious objects from the Temple of the Jew in Jerusalem.

Fortunately, in recent years portions of the “Temple of Peace” have been excavated.  But it seems that the key part, the Temple itself, is covered over by the street—the Via dei Fori Imperiali.

Josephus, the Jewish historian  lived in Rome during the time of Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, etc., and probably witnessed the construction and dedication of the Temple of Peace.  He wrote:

War.7.5.7. (158) After these triumphs [a procession through the old Forum—see Arch of Titus] were over, and after the affairs of the Romans were settled on the surest foundation, Vespasian resolved to build a temple to Peace, which he finished in so short a time, and in so glorious a manner, as was beyond all human expectations and opinion: (159) for he having now by Providence a vast quantity of wealth, besides what he had formerly gained in his other exploits, he had this temple adorned with pictures and statues; (160) for in this temple were collected and deposited all such rarities as men aforetime used to wander all over the habitable world to see, when they had a desire to see them one after another: (161) he also laid up therein, as ensigns of his glory, those golden vessels and instruments that were taken out of the Jewish temple. (162) But still he gave orders that they should lay up their Law, and the purple veils of the holy place, in the royal palace itself, and keep them there.

It is interesting to “muse” that Josephus, who claims to have been a priest, probably saw these objects in THE TEMPLE in Jerusalem—before it was destroyed, but also witnessed their being deposited in a pagan temple and in the palace of the Emperor who had slaughtered so many of his people and had destroyed the very Temple of God!

View looking south at the southwest portico—where the seven columns are—and the southwest portion of the large “garden” that was west of the Temple of Peace.

From left to right in the center of the image, there are two parallel walls that are joined in the center of the image. This is a part of one of six such low structures. Some believe that these were actually raised gardens and had a small aqueduct flowing on top of them. A partial one is seen to the right of this one.  The large building in the upper right is the Curia—Roman Senate House.

In A.D. 192 the Temple of Peace burned down!  So what happened to the Menorah, golden vessels and utensils then?

You are invited to check out “Part 3” of this series in the not-to-distant future.

Herod the Great and The Stadium and Theater at Jericho

About half way between Old Testament Jericho and the Second Temple Palaces of Jericho there is a site called Tell es–Samarat.  This tell was partially excavated and the area surveyed by Ehud Netzer.

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View looking south from the top of Tell es–Samarat at the “stadium” of Second Temple Jericho. Click on Image to Enlarge and/or Download.

In the foreground is the top of the cavea of the small (3,000 seat) theater that faces south.  The flat area beyond it from the house in the lower right to beyond the hot houses is were the “stadium” of Herodian Jericho was located.  The stadium was bounded on the right (west) by the asphalt road and on the left by a line of green trees.

The first–century Jewish historian Josephus mentions several  important events that happened here.

It was in this stadium (also called an amphitheater) where the sickly Herod reprimanded those responsible for the removal of the eagle from the Temple, where Herod had locked up the Jewish leadership that was to be executed upon his death, and where his death and will were announced to his troops prior to the procession to the Herodium where he was buried (Josephus Antiq. xvii.161, 173–179, 193–195).

Trial in the Theater of Jews for the Removal of the Golden Eagle in the Temple Precincts  (160) . . .  And when the king had ordered them to be bound, he sent them to Jericho, and called together the principal men among the Jews; (161) and when they were come, he made them assemble in the theater, . . .  He then cried out, that these men had not abstained from affronting him, even in his lifetime, but that, in the very daytime, and in the sight of the multitude, they had abused him to that degree, as to fall upon what he had dedicated, and in that way of abuse, had pulled it [the golden Eagle] down to the ground. They pretended, indeed, that they did it to affront him; but if anyone consider the thing truly, they will find that they were guilty of sacrilege against God therein.

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View looking west northwest at the cavea (semi-circular seating area) of the 3,000 seat “theater/odeum” at Tell es–Samarat. Click on Image to Enlarge and/or Download.

It was in this area where the sickly Herod reprimanded those responsible for the removal of the eagle from the Temple (see text above), where Herod had locked up the Jewish leadership that was to be executed upon his death (texts below), and where his death and will were announced to his troops prior to the procession to the Herodium where he was buried (Josephus Antiq. xvii.161, 173–179, 193–195).

Herod Commanded the Execution of Jewish Elite so that there would be Mourning at His Death  (173) . . .  and though he [Herod] was near his death, he contrived the following wicked designs. (174) He commanded that all the principal men of the entire Jewish nation wheresoever they lived, should be called to him. . . . And now the king was in a wild rage against them all, the innocent as well as those that had given him ground for accusations; (175) and when they were come, he ordered them all to be shut up in the hippodrome, and sent for his sister Salome, and her husband Alexas, and spoke thus to them:—“I shall die in a little time, so great are my pains; which death ought to be cheerfully borne, and to be welcomed by all men; but what principally troubles me is this, that I shall die without being lamented, and without such mourning as men usually expect at a king’s death.” (176) For that he was not unacquainted with the temper of the Jews, that his death would be a thing very desirable, and exceedingly acceptable to them; because during his lifetime they were ready to revolt from him, and to abuse the donations he had dedicated to God: (177) that it therefore was their business to resolve to afford him some alleviation of his great sorrows on this occasion; for that, if they do not refuse him their consent in what he desires, he shall have a great mourning at his funeral, and such as never any king had before him; for then the whole nation would mourn from their very soul, which otherwise would be done in sport and mockery only. (178) He desired therefore that as soon as they see he hath given up the ghost, they shall place soldiers round the hippodrome, while they do not know that he is dead; and that they shall not declare his death to the multitude till this is done, but that they shall give orders to have those that are in custody shot with their darts; and that this slaughter of them all will cause that he shall not miss to rejoice on a double account; that as he is dying, they will make him secure that his will shall be executed in what he charges them to do; and that he shall have the honor of a memorable mourning at his funeral. (179) So he deplored his condition, with tears in his eyes, . . . and begged of them that they would not hinder him of this honorable mourning at his funeral. So they promised him not to transgress his commands.

Jewish Elite Released at Herod’s Death  and the Reading of His Will  Antiq.17.8.2. (193) But then Salome and Alexas, before the king’s death was made known, dismissed those that were shut up in the hippodrome, and told them that the king ordered them to go away to their own lands, and take care of their own affairs, which was esteemed by the nation a great benefit; (194) and now the king’s death was made public, when Salome and Alexas gathered the soldiery together in the amphitheater at Jericho; and the first thing they did was, they read Herod’s letter, written to the soldiery, thanking them for their fidelity and good will to him, and exhorting them to afford his son Archelaus, whom he had appointed for their king, like fidelity and good will. . . .  so there was presently an acclamation made to Archelaus, as king, and the soldiers came by bands, and their commanders with them, and promised the same good will to him, and readiness to serve him, which they had exhibited to Herod; and they prayed God to be assistant to him.

Herod’s Burial Procession from Jericho to the HerodiumAntiq.17.8.3. (196) After this was over, they prepared for his funeral, it being Archelaus’s care that the procession to his father’s sepulchre should be very sumptuous. Accordingly he brought out all his ornaments to adorn the pomp of the funeral. (197) The body was carried upon a golden bier, embroidered with very precious stones of great variety, and it was covered over with purple, as well as the body itself; he had a diadem upon his head, and above it a crown of gold; he also had a sceptre in his right hand. (198) About the bier were his sons and his numerous relations; next to these was the soldiery distinguished according to their several countries and denominations; and they were put into the following order:—First of all went his guards, then the band of Thracians; and after them the Germans; and next the band of Galatians, everyone in their habiliments of war; and behind these marched the whole army in the same manner as they used to go out to war, (199) and as they used to be put in array by their muster-masters and centurions; these were followed by five hundred of his domestics, carrying spices. So they went eight furlongs, to Herodium; for there, by his own command, he was to be buried;—and thus did Herod end his life.

BTW: the only other place in the Roman world where a theater is connected with a stadium is at the beautiful/well–preserved site of Aizanoi in Turkey!

PS: Caution Visiting Tell es–Samarat  The last time we visited this site our group of about 35 was harassed by five 10-12 year old boys who kept touching the women in our group and would not stop—even our Palestinian bus driver tried to intervene, but to no effect.  Unfortunately we had to quickly leave because of this.

See Netzer, Ehud, and Rachel Laureys–Chachy. The Architecture of Herod, the Great Builder. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2008, pp. 72–80.

Josephus the Traitor! and Historian!

Jotapata was a city in Lower Galilee about 3 mi. [5 km.] north of Sepphoris and 9 mi. [14.5 km.] north of Nazareth.  It is not mentioned in scripture, but 37 times in the works of the Jewish historian Josephus.

It was fortified by Josephus, who was the Jewish commander in Galilee at the beginning of the First Revolt (AD 66-70) and after a 47-day siege the Romans captured the city.

View to Jotapata from the north

Here Josephus went over to the side of the Romans—being one of the few survivors of the siege (War III: 141-408)!  It was here that he prophesied that the general Vespasian would become emperor—which in fact he did!

Ritual Bath (Miqvah) at Jotapata

The site has been excavated in recent years and here remains of the siege ramp, the defensive walls, houses (one with frescoes!), cisterns, caves, ritual baths, stone vessels, arrowheads, etc. have been discovered.

Josephus wrote his description of the First Jewish Revolt in his The Jewish Wars around AD 75-85.  This is a first hand description, with embellishments, of the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by Titus in AD 70.

For more pictures and commentary on Jotapata Click Here.

For a description of the excavations see: Aviam, Mordechai. “Yodfat.” Pages 2076–78 in The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land — vol. 5 — Supplementary Volume. Edited by Ephraim Stern, Ayellet Lewinson–Gilboa, and Joseph Aviram. Jerusalem and Washington, DC: Israel Exploration Society and Biblical Archaeological Society, 2008.

Yodfat/Jotapata — New Road

Paved Road to Jotapata

On July 11 I was in the field teaching a group of students from the Jerusalem University College who were studying “Jesus and His Times.”  I wanted to take them to Jotapata to help them understand Josephus and the First Jewish Revolt, but it was close to the end of the day and remembering last year’s hour walk into the site, and 100 degree F temperatures, I thought we would just view it from above.  Much to my delight I found that a new paved road had been built to the site!  So instead of an hour walk in, we just drove to the foot of the mound and began exploring Jotapata.