Adada and Paul’s First Journey

AdadaAdada is a well–preserved Roman city located 40 mi. north of Perge on the road that led from Perge to Pisidian Antioch.  It is probable that Paul and Barnabas passed through the city as they traveled south, descending from Pisidian Antioch to Attalia (see below).

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This well preserved temple at Adada was dedicated to the Roman Emperors
Three temples dedicated to the Emperors have been found at Adada
Click on Image to Enlarge

The city minted its own coins in the first century BC and it was very prosperous during the rules of the Roman Emperors Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius (ca. AD 98–160).

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Remains of the Roman Forum — The massive “staircase” is more probably a seating area where the council of Adada could meet.
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The remains at Adada include a Forum, a theater, and temples to Roman Emperors!

AdadaMapTHYDr. Mark Wilson notes that there were two routes that connected the Pamphilian Plain (Perge and Attalia) with Pisidian Antioch.  He suggested that Paul and Barnabas took the western route, the via Sebastia, from Perge to Pisidian Antioch but followed the quicker, but steeper central route on their return journey south to Perga (Acts 14:25)—thus passing through Adada on their return journey.

Wilson, Mark. Biblical Turkey — a Guide to the Jewish and Christian Sites of Asia Minor. Istanbul: Ege Yayinlari, 2010, p. 106.

To view 24 high resolution images of Adada, along with commentary, Click Here.

Paphos Cyprus — Did Paul “preach” to Sergius Paulus here? (Acts 13:6–12)

CyprusMapCyprus  is mentioned 3 times in the Old Testament and 7 times in the New Testament.  It was the home of Barnabas (Acts 4:36) and was visited by Paul, Barnabas, and John Mark on Paul’s first missionary journey.

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View looking west northwest at the Atrium of the “House of Theseus” (= Proconsul’s Villa) at Paphos. In the center of the Atrium (there are several in the villa) is a small sunken pond. In the upper left of the image is an apse—an “exedra” used for gathering. Click on Image to Enlarge and/or Download.

The “House of Theseus” is named after its main mosaic—that of Thesesus killing the Minotaur (at Knossos on Crete).  It is the largest Roman house discovered on Cyprus and an earlier version of it may very well have been the residence of Sergius Paulus, the proconsul (Roman governor of Cyprus), who is mentioned in Acts 13:4–12, and who was converted to “Christianity.”

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View looking southwest at one of the Audience Halls of the “House of Theseus” (= Proconsul’s Villa) at Paphos. Note the mosaic “carpet” of the hall.

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Theseus is the central figure in the mosaic with the raised club. He is slaying the “Minotaur” (half bull half human being that inhabited the Labryrinth of Knossos (on Crete)—thus making him eligible to marry the daughter of the king of Knossos, Ariadne. The Greek inscriptions clearly show Ariadne in the upper left part of the image, Crete in the upper right, “Labyrinth” in the lower left, and the name of “Minotaur” in the lower right the Minotaur part of the mosaic was destroyed in antiquity.

The “House of Theseus” is named after its main mosaic—that of Theseus killing the Minotaur (at Knossos on Crete).


Cyprus is located at the northeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea.  It is the third largest Mediterranean Island with a population of 800,000 people.  80% are Greek Cypriots, 11% Turkish Cypriots, and 9% are foreign residents.  It is about 3,572 sq. mi. [9,251 sq. km.] in size—about half the size of the US state of New Jersey.  This palace has been under excavation by a Polish team since 1966.

The Tomb of the High Priest Annas? Part 2 of 2 — The Interior

In Part I of this post I presented images of the exterior of the tomb of Annas—a very influential High Priest (AD 6–15) whose sons, and later son-in-law, Caiaphas, succeeded him in that office.  Annas is mentioned in the New Testament in Luke 3:2; John 18:13, 24;  and Acts 4:6.  Today I present some images of the interior of this tomb that is actually much better preserved than its exterior.  Click on the images to view  high-resolution versions—and save if you wish.

The Western Wall of the Interior of the Tomb of Annas
Unfortunately the locals were not too interested in the preservation of this tomb
I’m sure you have noticed the collection of trash!#$@!

In the lower portion of the image there are three openings that lead into long chambers into which bodies of the deceased were placed (loculi; singular loculus).  The Ritmeyers have suggested that Annas the High Priest was actually buried in the central chamber!  Above the central chamber please notice the carvings in the rock representing doorposts, a lintel, a gabled (triangular shaped) roof.

At the very top of the image note the finely carved rosette pattern!!  There are 32 petals in this magnificently carved rosette.  This rosette is unique except for a smaller one in the back room of the so-called Tomb of Absalom AND a very large one in the Double Gate that leads into the Temple Mount Complex!!

View of the upper portion of the southern wall of the Tomb of Annas

Notice the fine details carved into the stone wall:  the gabled roof pediment, lintel, the door posts, the acroterion(!), and the molding.

At the very top of the image note a small portion of the finely carved rosette pattern!!  AND, in the upper left portion of the ceiling the outline of a large carved acanthus leaf (there was one in each of the corners of the ceiling within this tomb.  In the lower right quadrant, where the two walls meet, note the vertical carved pilasters and also the molding on the walls where they meet the ceiling.

Deeply carved, 32 petal rosette ceiling in the Tomb of Annas.

There are 32 deeply carved petals in this rosette.  This rosette is unique except for a smaller one in the back room of the so-called Tomb of Absalom AND the larger one in the Double Gate that leads into the Temple Mount Complex!!

Near the center of the image is a circle from which the 32 rosette petals emanate.  The circle is actually a whorl rosette with faint petals.

To view additional images of both the interior and exterior of this tomb Click Here.

For a detailed description of this, and other tombs in the area, as well as the logic that this is the tomb of Annas please seen the article by Leen and Kathleen  Ritmeyer, “Akeldama: Potter’s Field or High Priest’s Tomb?” Biblical Archaeology Review 20 (1994): 23-35, 76, 78.

The Tomb of the High Priest Annas? Part 1 of 2 — The Exterior

Annas was a very influential High Priest (AD 6–15) whose sons, and later son-in-law, Caiaphas, succeeded him in that office.  Annas is mentioned in the New Testament in Luke 3:2; John 18:13, 24;  and Acts 4:6.

One of the most richly decorated tombs from the Second Temple Period is located on the southern slope of the junction of the Kidron and Hinnom Valleys.

Junction of the Kidron and Hinnom Valleys with the Tomb of Annas

This is the area that some have called “Akeldama” or the “field of blood” that is associated with events surrounding the death of Judas.  In 1994 Leen and Kathleen Ritmeyer published an article suggesting that this special tomb may have been that of one of the High Priests mentioned in the New Testament and elsewhere.

Exterior of the “Tomb of Annas”
Badly defaced by later quarrying

Entrance to the “Tomb of Annas”

The above images show a view looking south at the exterior of the tomb.  On the right (west) side of the image notice the two semi-circular niches (for mourners/visitors?).  The entrance to the tomb has been heavily quarried/destroyed.  Notice the decorative partial shell conch over the now-almost-destroyed entrance to the tomb.

Detail of west side of tomb with an engaged column (pilaster) and the mourner niches.
When this photo was taken the tomb and forecourt were being used as a cattle pen!

West side of the tomb

In the image above, remnants of an engaged column (pilaster) are visible as are two apses—possibly used by mourners and/or visitors.

Standing in front of this tomb, looking north, one has a clear view of the Temple Mount—were Annas and his descendents had served.

For a detailed description of this, and other tombs in the area, as well as the logic that this is the tomb of Annas please seen the article by Leen and Kathleen  Ritmeyer, “Akeldama: Potter’s Field or High Priest’s Tomb?” Biblical Archaeology Review 20 (1994): 23-35, 76, 78.

In the next post — images of the magnificent interior of this tomb!

Seldom Visited Aqueduct at Caesarea

The High Level aqueduct at Caesarea Maritima is a site usually visited by tour groups to Caesarea.

Aqueduct Junction  — Note how one part turns left while the other channel continues straight.  Eventually, both sections lead to Caesarea.

But only 3 mi. [4.5 km.] to the north-northwest of Caesarea is a very well preserved portion of that same aqueduct—at the Israeli town of “Bet Hannanya.”

On the right, a Latin Inscription mentioning the the Roman Emperor Hadrian (ruled AD 117-138)

To visit the aqueduct, drive north on Route 4 from Caesarea.  Turn left (west) at the Bet Hannanya intersection, and left again toward the village.  The road passes right through the aqueduct—it is only two minutes from Route 4!

To view additional images of this aqueduct Click Here.

Have you ever seen a Human Sacrifice?

On our trips Following in the Footsteps of Paul on one of the days, we visit Alexandrian Troas—its agora, harbor, and one of the quarries.  After lunch, we visit Troy, which is our last antiquity site we visit in Turkey, before crossing into Greece on the next day.

This year at Troy, the new museum was finally open.

The entrance to the New Museum near Troy.

The museum was opened in October 2018.  In the museum displays include sculpture, sarcophagus, inscription, altar, milestone, ax and cutting tools, terracotta ceramics, metal pots, golds, guns, coins, bone objects and tools, glass bracelets, ornaments, figurines, glass and terracotta scent bottles, etc.

Some of the precious objects from Troy that were previously on display in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum and in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara have been returned to Troy.

The interior of the Museum at Troy. Bookstore and coffee shop.

Objects from Assos, Alexandria Troas, the Smintheion, etc. are also on display.  Below is a sample of what the displays look like.

The Polyxena Sarcophagus.

This sarcophagus was discovered in 1994.  It is dated to 500-490 B.C.  On one of the long sides the sacrifice of Polyxena, the younger daughter of the Trojan King Priam and Queen Hecuba is depicted.

The sacrifice of Polyxena, the younger daughter of the Trojan King Priam and Queen Hecuba. Click on image to enlarge and/or download.

Note the detail on how the human is being carried and the positioning of the knife as it is inserted into the throat.  This is not the “mere” execution of a prisoner, but a purposeful sacrifice of a beloved child in order to propitiate a deity!

Compare, on the Greek side of the Trojan war the fresco from Pompeii.


Compare from the Bible:

1Kings 16:34  In Ahab’s time, Hiel of Bethel rebuilt Jericho. He laid its foundations at the cost of his firstborn son Abiram, and he set up its gates at the cost of his youngest son Segub, in accordance with the word of the LORD spoken by Joshua son of Nun.

2Kings 3:27 Then he [King of Moab] took his firstborn son, who was to succeed him as king, and offered him as a sacrifice on the city wall. The fury against Israel was great; they withdrew and returned to their own land.

Fair Havens (Acts 27:8)

229_FHavensMap031225Acts 27 describes Paul’s journey, as a prisoner, from Caesarea in Palestine to Rome.

Paul, in the custody of a centurion, sailed W from Cnidus on an Alexandrian grain ship.  the weather forced them to sail on the S side of Crete.  They passed Cape Salmone … and took refuge at Fair Havens.  Since Fair Havens was only an open bay, the centurion, the captain, and the owner of the ship decided to attempt to reach Phoenix ….”
(A. Rupprecht in The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible)

However, the strong wind blew them off course and this led to eventual shipwreck on Malta before continuing on to Rome.

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Kali Limones — Acts 27:8 Fair Havens
The Bay plus the modern dock for small boats

Today the site is called “Kali Limones.”  It is somewhat difficult to get to for one must drive for 45 minutes through some rugged mountains.  The port today is basically a swimming beach with very few structures, an island on which four large oil tanks have been built, a dock (under development 2013) for small boats, and the Chapel of St. Paul—with an associated cave.

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Chapel of St. Paul (white church)
Cave of St. Paul (the brown doorway to the left of center)

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Port of Fair Havens
Note the island with the oil tanks (sigh)

To view 15 high-resolution images of Fair Havens, including more of the port and the interiors of the Chapel of St. Paul and the Cave of St. Paul Click Here.

When the apostle Paul was traveling as a prisoner from Caesarea, in Palestine, to Rome, after leaving the southwestern coast of Turkey

“… we sailed to the lee of Crete opposite Salmone … and came to a place called Fair Havens, near the town of Lasea … after the fast [Day of Atonement in late September] … the majority decided that we should sail on, hoping to reach Phoenix and winter there … so they weighed anchor and sailed along the [southern] shore of Crete … the ship was caught by the storm … we passed to the lee [south] of a small island called Cauda, we were hardly able to make the lifeboat secure.”  (Acts 27:7-16; NIV translation)