Category Archives: Museums

Olympics and Statues from the Time of The Apostle Paul

With the Olympic games in progress and Bible History Daily featuring a 2004 article entitled “Ancient Combat Sports” my mind drifted back to a trip to Rome in which seventy(!) world-class statues from all over Italy had been gathered in the hallways of the Colosseum in Rome.  The display was called “Nike. Il gioco e la vittoria”   (Nike, joy and victory)—it had nothing to do with the shoe company!  The following are three of the 23 images that I have posted on my web site.

YRMNK08

Discus Thrower (Diskobolos)

This is a first century A.D. life-size (61 in. [1.54 m.]) marble statue copied from a bronze statue originally done by the sculptor Myron of Greece ca. 450 B.C.  This piece is normally displayed in the Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome.

YRMNK10

View of the “Terme Boxer” (Pugile delle Terme).  This contestant participated in pancratium (a combination of boxing and wrestling that allowed such tactics as kicking and strangling)

This bronze statue of a boxer, a pugilist, is signed by Apollonius.  He is seated, weary, and battered.  The realism of this statute is characteristic of the Hellenistic period.  It was found in Rome.  It is a first century A.D. copy of a third or second century B.C. original.  If you enlarge the image the leather gloves that the boxers wore—sometimes with metal bands, as in this case—are clearly visible.

1 Cor. 9:26 Therefore I do not run like a man running aimlessly; I do not fight like a man beating the air.  27 No, I beat my body and make it my slave so that after I have preached to others, I myself will not be disqualified for the prize.

YRMNK04

Runners (Corridoi)

Two bronze runners from the villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum.  These are first century A.D. copies of third century B.C. statues.

“Cupping” Ancient and Modern

There is quite a “buzz” about the round marks evident on the worlds’ best swimmer, Michael Phelps, as he participates in the Olympics in Rio.

PhelpsCuppingHe is practicing an ancient therapy called “cupping” where by cups are place on the skin to produce a local suction on the skin.  This is believed to assist the flow of blood in order to promote healing.  The “suction” can be created by placing heated cups on the skin—or in modern times by using mechanical suction.

GSATNMMI04

A rectangular marble statue base in which are carved Physicians’ implements. On each side are cupping glasses, and in the middle is a case of medical instruments of various types.  It was found in the Asclepion in Athens—below the acropolis.

This technology was actually used by the Greeks as far back as the Hellenistic Period as the above statue base gives evidence!  The above object dates to the 3rd or 2nd century B.C. and is located in the National Museum in Athens.

See Here for a good article on modern “Cupping.”

The Roles of the Roman Emperors

Groups traveling to Turkey will often fly into Istanbul and spend a day or two there before continuing on to other parts of the country.   One of the stops in Istanbul is typically the world-class Archaeological Museum located near the Hagia Sophia and the Topkapi Palace.  For students of the Bible it houses some extremely important artifacts.  The main ones are located on the top floor of the museum including the Siloam Tunnel Inscription, The Second Temple Warning Inscription, and the Gezer Calendar (the first two from Jerusalem).

Bronze Statue of the Roman Emperor Hadrian (r. AD 117-138)
In Toga depicting him as “the first citizen” of Rome
Archaeological Museum in Istanbul
For additional information about this statue Click Here

Continue reading

Politarchs (Acts 17:6, 8): Luke gets it right—as usual!

Acts 17 describes the arrival of Paul and Silas in Thessalonica, on Paul’s Second Journey, and how that after preaching in the synagogue on three Sabbath days that

4 Some of the Jews were persuaded and joined Paul and Silas, as did a large number of God-fearing Greeks and not a few prominent women.

Acts 17:5     But the Jews were jealous; so they rounded up some bad characters from the marketplace, formed a mob and started a riot in the city. They rushed to Jason’s house in search of Paul and Silas in order to bring them out to the crowd.  6 But when they did not find them, they dragged Jason and some other brothers before the city officials [politarchs], shouting: “These men who have caused trouble all over the world have now come here,  7 and Jason has welcomed them into his house. They are all defying Caesar’s decrees, saying that there is another king, one called Jesus.”  8 When they heard this, the crowd and the city officials [politarchs] were thrown into turmoil.  9 Then they made Jason and the others post bond and let them go. (NIV)

PolitarchInscription

This inscription, dated to the second century A.D., lists six Politarchs (“Rulers of the Citizens”) among other officials. Click on Image to Enlarge and/or Download.

This term, “politarch,” is used (correctly!) by Luke in Acts 17:6, 8 of officials in Thessalonica.

These “ruler of the citizens” were the chief magistrates of the city and were appointed annually.  “They performed administrative and executive functions, as well as exercising judicial authority . . . of the more than sixty known inscriptions that mention politarchs, three–fourths of them are from the Macedonian area of Greece, with approximately half being from Thessalonica itself.”

The inscription is from an old Roman arch that was part of the old Vardar Gate that was torn down in 1876.  The inscription was given to the British Consulate and eventually presented to the British Museum.

Explanatory information from Fant, Clyde E., and Mitchell G. Reddish, “Politarch Inscription at Thessalonica,” pp. 366–70.   Lost Treasures of the Bible — Understanding the Bible Through Archaeological Artifacts in World Museums. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2008.  They also have provided a translation of the inscription on page 367.

To view/download 12 high resolution photos of Thessalonica Click Here.

The Thrill of Discovery—in a Museum!

The Museum of the Ancient Orient in Istanbul contains a number of “world class” objects that were gathered by the rulers of the late Ottoman Empire from all over the Middle East—including glazed tiles from the Ishtar Gate in ancient Babylon and a copy of the Treaty of Kadesh (between the Egyptians and the Hittite—late 13th century B.C.).

BoyAndLion02

“I am happy to meet you Mr. Lion!”
See below for the ferocious lion that this child is making friends with!
Click on Image to Enlarge/Download

Often times people tire quickly when visiting museums, but this January we observed one young visitor who was in the process of making friends with a ferocious looking lion that once guarded the approach to an 8th century Hittite Palace at Zincirli (ancient Samal).

TCMZIL20

One of the pair of basalt lions that guarded the entrance
to the 8th century Hittite Palace at Zincirli
Note the detail of the mane and whiskers
Click on Image to Enlarge/Download

Oh, to see the world through a child’s eyes.  The joy of discovery/encounter!

The Galilee Boat

One of the very interesting archaeological discoveries related to the days of Jesus is the 27 foot boat that was discovered on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee in 1986.  The “carcass” of this unique boat is now on display in the Alon Museum on the grounds of the Kibbutz Ginnosar.  This is the only 1st century boat that has been found on the Sea of Galilee.  Possible Jesus and/or his disciples used a craft such as this one (for example Matt 13:18, 23–27; Mark 4:35–41; Luke 8:22–25).

GalileeBoat01

The Galilee Boat on display at the Yigal Alon Museum on the grounds of Kibbutz Ginnosar. Click on Image to Enlarge and/or Download.

A full scale version of this boat use to be visible at Kibbutz Ein Gev.  Unfortunately it is now wasting away on a trash heap.

GalileeBoat02

Full scale reconstruction of the Galilee Boat many years ago on the grounds of Kibbutz Ein Gev. Click on Image to Enlarge and/or Download.

As in a “mirror, dimly” 1 Corinthians 13:12

This past summer (2015) on a visit to the Israel Museum we were treated to a wonderful display of antiquities and ancient glass that Renée and Robert Belfer of New York have gifted to the Israel Museum.  Among the objects is “box mirror” decorated with a woman’s head in relief.

IJIM02

A Bronze Mirror From the Belfer Collection on display in the Israel Museum. Click on Image to Enlarge and/or Download.

It is made out of bronze, dates to the 4th-3rd century BCE and measures 8.5 x 6.5 inches. It swings open on the top hinge and the inside surfaces were polished in order to be used as mirrors. It appears that there was a latch—now broken—on the lower edge of the mirror.

IJIM03

A view of the interior surface of the mirror.

This artifact well illustrates the type of object that the apostle Paul had in mind when he wrote to the church at Corinth:

1Cor. 13:8   Love never ends. But as for prophecies, they will come to an end; as for tongues, they will cease; as for knowledge, it will come to an end.  9 For we know only in part, and we prophesy only in part;  10 but when the complete comes, the partial will come to an end.  11 When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child; when I became an adult, I put an end to childish ways.  12 For now we see in a mirror, dimly, but then we will see face to face. Now I know only in part; then I will know fully, even as I have been fully known.  13 And now faith, hope, and love abide, these three; and the greatest of these is love. (NRSV)

Although it is not known where the mirror was found, we do know that Corinth was famous for the color and quality of the bronze objects made there.  “It [the bronze] had an unusually high tin content (14%) that gave it an unusual color” (Furnish below).  Indeed Josephus, the first century Jewish Historian, wrote of the gates of the Second Temple that:

Now nine of these gates were on every side covered over with gold and silver, as were the jambs of their doors and their lintels; but there was one gate that was without [the inward court of] the holy house, which was of Corinthian brass, and greatly excelled those that were only covered over with silver and gold.  (Jewish War 5.5.3 [201–205])


Furnish, Victor Paul. “Corinth in Paul’s Time—What Can Archaeology Tell US?” Biblical Archaeology Review 14, no. 3 (May/June 1988): 14–27.