The Arch of Titus (Roman Emperor A.D. 79–81) is located in Rome on the east end of the ancient Roman Forum not too far from the Colosseum. The emperor Domitian (A.D. 81-96) built it soon after the death of Titus in A.D. 81.
The arch commemorates the victories of Vespasian (A.D. 69–79) and his son Titus—particularly their putting down the Jewish revolt in Judea and the capture of Jerusalem in A.D. 70.
It is well to remember that this commemorative arch was built by Domitian, to commemorate a triumphal parade of the previous emperor Vespasian and his son Titus who was the actual conquer of Jerusalem. On the south inner side of the arch, Roman soldiers carry the booty from the Jerusalem Temple in triumph into Rome—see end of blog for quote from Josephus.
From right to left note the representation of a Triumphal Gate with two chariot groups on top of it (enlarge the image to view details). To the left of this are two crossed (silver) trumpets taken from the Temple in Jerusalem. Faintly visible (enlarge image) is a representation of one of the tables that held the “show bread” in the Holy Place of the Temple.
On the left side of the image one of the seven-branched candlesticks (menorah) from the Jerusalem Temple. This is one of the earliest representations of a menorah in existence! Also visible are several rectangular placards on poles. These probably were painted with inscriptions naming either cities or peoples conquered—or identifying the objects that were being displayed in triumph.
Josephus, who was probably an eye-witness to this Triumphal Procession describes it as follows:
(148) and for the other spoils, they were carried in great plenty. But for those that were taken in the temple of Jerusalem, they made the greatest figure of them all; that is, the golden table, of the weight of many talents; the candlestick also, that was made of gold, though its construction were now changed from that which we made use of: (149) for its middle shaft was fixed upon a basis, and the small branches were produced out of it to a great length, having the likeness of a trident in their position, and had every one a socket made of brass for a lamp at the tops of them. These lamps were in number seven, and represented the dignity of the number seven among the Jews; (150) and the last of all the spoils was carried the Law of the Jews. [= Torah scroll(s)?] (151) After these spoils passed by a great many men, carrying the images of Victory, whose structure was entirely either of ivory or of gold. (152) After which Vespasian [Emperor at the time] marched in the first place, and Titus [son of Vespasian] followed him; Domitian [son of Vespasian] also rode along with them, and made a glorious appearance, and rode on a horse that was worthy of admiration. (Josephus War 7.148-152 [7.5.4])
Evidently, all this booty, along with other treasures from Judea, were deposited in Vespasian’s “Temple of Peace!”
What is the “Temple of Peace” you ask? We will take a look at that in my next blog.
Click Here to view additional images of the Arch of Titus.