Category Archives: Jerusalem

Gordon’s Calvary

North of the Damascus Gate of the Old City of Jerusalem is the site of the Garden Tomb and Gordon’s Calvary.

View of the “skull” – looking northeast.  In the center of the image the “skull” is visible.  Note the modern Arab bus station in the lower right portion of the image.

In 1842, Otto Thenius proposed that this was Calvary (Golgotha) – the place of the skull – the site of the crucifixion of Jesus. This proposal was given prominence by the British general Charles Gordon in 1883 in combination with the nearby tomb that had been discovered in 1867. For a more general view of the area, click here.

Luke 23:32     Two other men, both criminals, were also led out with him to be executed.  33 When they came to the place called the Skull [Golgotha/Calvary], there they crucified him, along with the criminals—one on his right, the other on his left.  34 Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing.” And they divided up his clothes by casting lots.

Luke 23:35     The people stood watching, and the rulers even sneered at him.

Since the Romans normally crucified people right along the roads, so passersby would be intimidated, the crucifixion was probably not on top of Golgotha, but along side a nearby road.

Gordon’s Calvary June 1967 — after the Six Days War.

A Jerusalem Cross — An Unusual Photo

One of the sites that all Christian groups visit in Jerusalem is the site of Dominus Flevit on the Mount of Olives (see below for a description as to why this church is important).  Although the view from within the church, overlooking Jerusalem, is justly famous (see below) on that day I took the following photo.

View of Jerusalem from Dominus Flevit. Under the cross is the Dome of the Rock. To the left of the Dome is the bell tower of the Church of the Redeemer. To the right of the Dome is the bell tower of Saint Savior’s Church.

I have not added anything to the above photo!  For those of you who have visited Jerusalem you may be saying, “what in the world is this?”   This is what I saw—although I have flipped the photo horizontally 180 degrees.  (Ok, I cleaned up a few spots—the window was dirty!).

Yes, this photos was taken outside of Dominus Flevit looking back at the reflection of Jerusalem in its main window!

By the way — please notice the “crown of thorns tree” on the left side of the image.


Dominus Flevit is a Roman Catholic Church (compound) located on the upper third of the Mount of Olives overlooking the city of Jerusalem to the west.

This church was designed by Antonio Barluzzi and was constructed in the 1950’s.  The roof of the church is designed to resemble a “tear drop” — as the church commemorates Jesus weeping over the city of Jerusalem (Luke 19:41–44).  On each of the four corners of the church are large representations of small glass vessels which were used to catch the tears of mourners in the first century AD.

This is the “normal” view that visitors normally see from within Dominus Flevit.

 

Jason’s Tomb (2nd Temple Period)

Jason’s tomb is a beautiful funeral monument from the late Hellenistic – early Roman period. It was the tomb of a high priestly family that was forced out of Jerusalem in 172 B.C. (2 Maccabees 5:5-10) by their rival, Menelaus. It was constructed in the second century B.C. and was in use until A.D. 30 (about the time of the crucifixion of Jesus).  This tomb was discovered in 1956 and is located in west Jerusalem—in Rehavia. It consists of several courtyards and a “pyramid-shaped” roof.

Entrance to Jason’s Tomb

View looking north into the tomb complex.  On this side of the arch is the first of the two courtyards. Beyond the arch is the second court. Note the (reconstructed) pyramid shaped roof.

Entrance to Inner Court

View looking onto the inner porch of Jason’s Tomb.  Clearly visible is the single Doric (a simple Greek architectural style) column built of stone drums. Beyond the column is the inner porch.  Note the pyramid shaped roof. The reconstruction is based upon fragments found in the excavations.

Jason’s Tomb Interior

View of the northwest corner of the inner (third) courtyard of Jason’s Tomb. The entrance on the left is to the area of 8 shaft graves. On the right of center is the entrance to the chamber in which secondary burials were made.  Note the two blocking stones that were used to close these chambers.

For additional information and images of Jason’s Tomb Click Here.

Church of Holy Sepulcher — The Syrians and the “Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea”

While visiting the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, I had a chance to observe portions of a Syrian Jacobite Service in the “cavern-like” chapel just to the west of the Tomb of Jesus.

Carl Rasmussen Copyright and Contact

Syrian Jacobite service near the “Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea.”

Most Christian groups visiting Jerusalem will visit the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in the Old City of Jerusalem.  A few of them will visit the small cavern-like chapel that is located west of the Tomb of Jesus.  If they do, the following is what they see and many will pronounce it “uglee.”

syrian-chapel

Syrian Chapel — without a service!  Contrast the image above when it is prepared for the worship service of the Syrian Jacobites!

On the left is the wooden altar—where the priest above was serving—and in the lower right portion of the image is the low entrance into the Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea (see following).

first-century-tombs

View of two of the niches (kokhim) of a first century A.D. tomb, into which bodies were placed. The entrances were then sealed.

This tomb is entered via the Syrian Chapel and is sometimes called the “Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea.” The tradition is that Joseph of Arimathea was buried here, after he had given his original tomb for Jesus to be buried in (see, for example, John 19:38-42). For an additional example of a typical tomb from the first century A.D. – from the Mt. of Olives – click here.

I believe that “technically” this area is under the authority of the Armenians, but they permit the Syrian Orthodox to worship here.

Gordon’s Calvary

North of the Damascus Gate of the Old City of Jerusalem is the site of the Garden Tomb and Gordon’s Calvary.

View of the “skull” – looking northeast.  In the center of the image the “skull” is visible.  Note the modern Arab bus station in the lower right portion of the image.

“Gordon’s Calvary” Just right of center note the apparent “eye sockets” and the bridge of a nose. Unfortunately the “bridge of the nose” collapsed a few years ago.

In 1842, Otto Thenius proposed that this was Calvary (Golgotha) – the place of the skull – the site of the crucifixion of Jesus. This proposal was given prominence by the British general Charles Gordon in 1883 in combination with the nearby tomb that had been discovered in 1867. For a more general view of the area, click here.

Luke 23:32     Two other men, both criminals, were also led out with him to be executed.  33 When they came to the place called the Skull [Golgotha/Calvary], there they crucified him, along with the criminals—one on his right, the other on his left.  34 Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing.” And they divided up his clothes by casting lots.

Luke 23:35     The people stood watching, and the rulers even sneered at him.

Since the Romans normally crucified people right along the roads, so passersby would be intimidated, the crucifixion was probably not on top of Golgotha, but along side a nearby road.

Gordon’s Calvary June 1967 — after the Six Days War.

Warning to Gentiles from the Days of Jesus — Inscriptions

The Jewish Temple in Jerusalem was surrounded by a fence (balustrade) that was about 5 ft. [1.5 m.] high.  On this fence were mounted inscriptions in Latin and Greek forbidding Gentiles from entering the temple area proper (image below).

One complete inscription was found in Jerusalem in 1871 and is now on display on the third floor of the “Archaeological Museum” in Istanbul.

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The Temple Inscription warning Gentiles not to proceed beyond this barrier—on threat of death. Istanbul Archaeological Museum.

The Greek text has been translated:  “Foreigners must not enter inside the balustrade or into the forecourt around the sanctuary.  Whoever is caught will have himself to blame for his ensuing death.”

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The first century Jewish historian Josephus mentions the barrier and inscription in two places:

(193) When you go through these [first] cloisters, unto the second [court of the] temple, there was a partition made of stone all round, whose height was three cubits: its construction was very elegant; (194) upon it stood pillars, at equal distances from one another, declaring the law of purity, some in Greek, and some in Roman letters, that “no foreigner should go within that sanctuary;” for that second [court of the] temple was called “the Sanctuary;” (Josephus Jewish War.5.5.1 [193–194]

(417) Thus was the first enclosure. In the midst of which, and not far from it, was the second, to be gone up to by a few steps; this was encompassed by a stone wall for a partition, with an inscription, which forbade any foreigner to go in, under pain of death. (Josephus Jewish Antiquities 15.11.5 [417]

Compare the accusation against Paul found in Acts 21:28-29:

Acts 21:28 shouting, “Men of Israel, help us! This is the man who teaches all men everywhere against our people and our law and this place. And besides, he has brought Greeks into the temple area and defiled this holy place.”  29 (They had previously seen Trophimus the Ephesian in the city with Paul and assumed that Paul had brought him into the temple area.)

There is also the possibility that this barrier is referred to by Paul when he writes:

Eph. 2:14     For he himself is our peace, who has made the two one and has destroyed the barrier, the dividing wall of hostility,

 

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This six-line fragment of the Temple Warning was found by J. H. Iliffe east of the Old City of Jerusalem wall—near the Lion’s Gate.

 

Translation of the inscription from Elwell, Walter A., and Yarbrough, Robert W., eds.  Readings from the First–Century World: Primary Sources for New Testament Study.  Encountering Biblical Studies, general editor and New Testament editor Walter A. Elwell.  Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1998, p. 83. Click Here to view for purchase from amazon.com.

A Potter’s Village — A “Potter’s Field?” — Matthew 27 — An Aramaic Inscription from Jerusalem

Recently it was announced that a Potter’s Inscription was found in secondary usage (= spolia) near the International Convention Center in West Jerusalem.  Is it possible that the “Potters’ Field,” mentioned in Matthew 27, was located near here (see end of post)?

The Aramaic inscription reads “Hanania son of Dudolos from Jerusalem.” Click on image to Enlarge and/or Download.

The Aramaic inscription reads “Hanania son of Dudolos from Jerusalem.” It is the first epigraphic evidence to the name “Jerusalem” spelled as Yerushalayim (as it is written Hebrew today), as opposed to Yerushalem or Shalem.

The full “column” that bears the Aramaic Inscription—it is about 2 feet tall.

The column was originally part of a building that stood in a Jewish potters’ village on the outskirts of Jerusalem. “The site was eventually converted by the Tenth Roman Legion into a workshop for ceramic building products [aka “roof tiles”]. The column drum probably came from a workshop or some other structure belonging to Hanania or a public building that he helped finance. Hanania’s father’s name — Dudolos — is based on the name of the mythological Greek artist Daedalos; it may have been a nickname alluding to the father’s artistic abilities. it is interesting to note that although the village was very close to the city, Hanania still found it meaningful to mention his Jerusalem origins.” Source: Israel Museum Label


In a recent edition of Artifax (Autumn 2018, p. 2) the editor notes that it is interesting that the 30 pieces of silvers that Judas returned to the Temple was used to purchase a “Potter’s Field.”  This “potter’s village” is only a few miles west of the site of the Second Temple.

7 So they decided to use the money to buy the potter’s field as a burial place for foreigners. 8 That is why it has been called the Field of Blood to this day. 9 Then what was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled: “They took the thirty silver coins, the price set on him by the people of Israel, 10 and they used them to buy the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded me.”

“Perhaps the field that was purchased was located in the vicinity of the potter’s village where this stone inscription was found.” (Artifax p. 2)


“‘Jerusalem’ Inscribed on Column Dating to 100 BC.”  Artifax (Autumn 2018; vol. 33, no. 4), p. 2.  http://www.BibleArtifax.com

The “Fast Train” from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem — An Epic Journey ;-) !

Greetings!  I am in between projects here in Israel and Mary and I are spending a week relaxing in Tel Aviv.  I love railroads and today we decided to take the new “fast train” to Jerusalem.  Spoiler alert: this is not a high–speed “bullet train.”

The “fast train” in the Navon Station in Jerusalem. DEEP underground!

The journey is divided into two parts.  The first part is the normal train ride from Tel Aviv (HaShalom Station) to Ben Gurion Airport (15 min. ride).  At Ben Gurion we changed to the “fast train” to Jerusalem.  A lot of travelers with luggage boarded the train with us—it was about 1/2 full.  The cars are very clean and the journey took 25 minutes.  We arrived at the brand new Yitzak Navon deep–underground station.  Most travelers took the elevators to the surface.  But we just got on the return train back to Tel Aviv.  The train from Jerusalem to Ben Gurion was e-m-p-t-y.

My Impressions:  The train is not as “fast” as I thought it would be.  But it is non–stop between Ben Gurion and Jerusalem.  I was expecting some great vistas because for many years we have seen the tressels over the Aijalon Valley (Joshua and sun standing still) and over the deep Soreq Valley system near Jerusalem.  Unfortunately, all the windows were dirty or “cloudy” and so the pictures did not turn out too well.  In addition, at least 1/2 of the journey is in tunnels—so no views at all.  Actually, it was basically ALL long tunnels from the Aijalon Valley up to the Soreq Valley, just outside of Jerusalem—and then we had a 30 second view of the Soreq before entering the last tunnel into Jerusalem.  It was interesting, that as we were ascending to Jerusalem in one of the tunnels we, and the travelers around us, began to feel discomfort in our ears—it soon faded.

The following are some photos I took.  My photo processor is not working on this trip, so the photos are direct from the camera to you—sorry about that.

From a tressel looking east towards Jerusalem. The Soreq Valley is on the far right of the picture.

One of the very few random Hill Country Valleys that are visible on the train ride.

My conclusions:  I was fun to do this!  1) If you are traveling with a group, the bus pickup at Ben Gurion is the way to go.  2) If you are alone, if you take the train, then you will need to take a Taxi from the Navon Station in Jerusalem to your hotel.  3) If you have friends from Jerusalem that are picking you up, you can save them a lot of time by not going to Ben Gurion to pick you up.  Just have them pick you up at the Navon Station in Jerusalem.  The reverse will work slick as well.  BTW — I don’t think the train operates all night, you will have to check.

Also, 4) if you are traveling to Tel Aviv or points north, I think the “regular train,” that seems to operate every half hour, will take you to, for example, Tel Aviv, Netanya, Haifa, and Nahariya—this would be slick!

So there you go!  I hope the comments are helpful.  We enjoyed the journey and are very glad we had the chance to do it.

Next project: the train from Haifa to Beth Shean.  Hmm . . . we’ll see!

PS — the whole round trip cost for each of us was 13.50 NIS, about = $3.80.  I am not sure if we missed paying for extra tickets somwhere along the way, but hey . . . .

Yom Kippur 1973 — Did Golda Meir Know An Attack Was Coming?

Today, September 18/19 2018, is Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement)—the Jewish Fast Day when there is no work, no traffic, no TV, no radio, etc.,.  On Yom Kippur 1973, Saturday, October 6, my family and the family of Jim Monson were walking below the Knesset, Israel’s Parliament,  when we saw a few cars racing up and down the street.

Israel’s Kenesset—Parlement.

We wondered what was going on, in light of the fact that driving, especially in Jerusalem, was/is forbidden on the day.  Soon the air raid sirens went off!!   In a coördinated surprise attack, both Egypt and Syria had attacked Israel on its most sacred day (BTW it was also Ramadan!).

The Monson’s headed back to their house, and we headed back to our apartment.  When we arrived at our apartment we found our neighbors cleaning out old mattresses, bicycles, etc., from the bomb shelter.  The husband of one of our friends was stationed in one of the Israeli forts on the east side of the Suez Canal—the ones that the Egyptians overran.  But his fort was the only one not to be overrun!

How much of a surprise was the attack?  A  telegram (pre-internet age) from the head of Mossad, Zvi Zamir, to Prime Minister Golda Meir, warned, in the morning of Yom Kippur, that Egypt would attack that afternoon.

See Ynet for the telegram and English summary and commentary please see the interesting article:

We all know what happened!

Siloam Inscription from Hezekiah’s Tunnel

Because of the clarity of this photo, I thought I would post it again.  Click on image to Enlarge and/or Download.  Enjoy!

On a trip to Turkey I was able to rephotograph the Siloam Inscription from Hezekiah’s Tunnel in Jerusalem.  In the past I have found it difficult to photograph because of the glass cover over it and difficult lighting conditions.  This time I think my photograph turned out quite well and by clicking on the image you can actually read many of the letters.

The Siloam Inscription — Click on Image to Enlarge/Download

The Siloam Inscription — Click on Image to Enlarge/Download

This six line Hebrew inscription describes the digging of Hezekiah’s Tunnel that joins the Gihon Spring and the Pool of Siloam in the ancient city of Jerusalem.  It was found carved into the wall of the tunnel.

In was found in 1880 and was chiseled out of its original place and is now on display on the second/third floor of the “Archaeological Museum” in Istanbul.  It’s language, script, and content suggest that it was inscribed in the late eighth century during the reign of the Judean king Hezekiah (715–686 B.C.; see 2 Kings 20:20; 2 Chron 32:20).

For a translation of this text see pages 171-172 in Arnold, Bill T., and Beyer, Bryan E. eds.  Readings from the Ancient Near East: Primary Sources for Old Testament Study.  Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2001.  Click Here  to view for purchase from amazon.com.