Category Archives: Jerusalem

Yom Kippur 1973 — Did Golda Meir Know An Attack Was Coming?

Today, September 18/19 2018, is Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement)—the Jewish Fast Day when there is no work, no traffic, no TV, no radio, etc.,.  On Yom Kippur 1973, Saturday, October 6, my family and the family of Jim Monson were walking below the Knesset, Israel’s Parliament,  when we saw a few cars racing up and down the street.

Israel’s Kenesset—Parlement.

We wondered what was going on, in light of the fact that driving, especially in Jerusalem, was/is forbidden on the day.  Soon the air raid sirens went off!!   In a coördinated surprise attack, both Egypt and Syria had attacked Israel on its most sacred day (BTW it was also Ramadan!).

The Monson’s headed back to their house, and we headed back to our apartment.  When we arrived at our apartment we found our neighbors cleaning out old mattresses, bicycles, etc., from the bomb shelter.  The husband of one of our friends was stationed in one of the Israeli forts on the east side of the Suez Canal—the ones that the Egyptians overran.  But his fort was the only one not to be overrun!

How much of a surprise was the attack?  A  telegram (pre-internet age) from the head of Mossad, Zvi Zamir, to Prime Minister Golda Meir, warned, in the morning of Yom Kippur, that Egypt would attack that afternoon.

See Ynet for the telegram and English summary and commentary please see the interesting article:

We all know what happened!

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Siloam Inscription from Hezekiah’s Tunnel

Because of the clarity of this photo, I thought I would post it again.  Click on image to Enlarge and/or Download.  Enjoy!

On a trip to Turkey I was able to rephotograph the Siloam Inscription from Hezekiah’s Tunnel in Jerusalem.  In the past I have found it difficult to photograph because of the glass cover over it and difficult lighting conditions.  This time I think my photograph turned out quite well and by clicking on the image you can actually read many of the letters.

The Siloam Inscription — Click on Image to Enlarge/Download

The Siloam Inscription — Click on Image to Enlarge/Download

This six line Hebrew inscription describes the digging of Hezekiah’s Tunnel that joins the Gihon Spring and the Pool of Siloam in the ancient city of Jerusalem.  It was found carved into the wall of the tunnel.

In was found in 1880 and was chiseled out of its original place and is now on display on the second/third floor of the “Archaeological Museum” in Istanbul.  It’s language, script, and content suggest that it was inscribed in the late eighth century during the reign of the Judean king Hezekiah (715–686 B.C.; see 2 Kings 20:20; 2 Chron 32:20).

For a translation of this text see pages 171-172 in Arnold, Bill T., and Beyer, Bryan E. eds.  Readings from the Ancient Near East: Primary Sources for Old Testament Study.  Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2001.  Click Here  to view for purchase from amazon.com.

Gabi Barkay On the Tombs of Jerusalem

Our friends over at the Jerusalem Perspective have made available (free) a wonderful 50 minute illustrated video of a 2006 lecture by Dr. Gabriel Barkay entitled “Was Jesus Buried in the Garden Tomb?  First–Century Burial In Jerusalem.”

Spoiler alert: In the video, Gabi compares the Garden Tomb to other First Temple Tombs and contrasts the Garden Tomb with First Century Tombs.  It is classic “Gabi.”  Thorough, informative, and captivating—by THE authority on the archaeology and history of Jeruslem.

The entrance to the Garden Tomb.

Gabriel Barkay peering into the burial chamber of one of the Ketef Hinnom Tombs — from the First Temple Period.

One of the burial benches and repository in one of the chambers in the First Temple (Iron Age) Tombs on the grounds of the Ecole Biblique.

 

Jerusalem — The Neighborhood of Silwan — The Royal Steward’s Tomb

One of the least visited places in Jerusalem is the portion of the village of Silwan that is located on the lower western slope of the Mount of Olives—opposite the “City of David.”

The village itself is built over 50 tombs from the 8th and 7th centuries B.C. This necropolis – “city of the dead”  – was investigated by David Ussishkin and Gabriel Barkay between 1968 and 1971. Travel to this area is very difficult (= impossible) for the inhabitants of Silwan are normally very hostile to outsiders.

The two most famous tombs from this necropolis are “the Tomb of Pharaoh’s Daughter” and the “Tomb of the Royal Steward.”

IJOTIT05

Tomb of the “Royal Steward” located in the Village of Silwan
The two inscriptions have been carved out and taken to the British Museum
Note the door on the left — this important tomb was used as a storage room at the time that this picture was taken

Unfortunately the second most important tomb from the First Temple Period is located in this village.  This tomb was discovered by Clermont-Ganneau in 1870. It had two Hebrew inscriptions – one above the door and the other to the right of it. Both were carved out and sent to the British Museum where they are still housed.  The largest inscription was over the door (note the large “gash” there).

IJOTIT07 Nahman Avigad translated the larger inscription as “This is [the sepulcher of . . . ] yahu who is over the house. There is no silver and no gold here but [his bones] and the bones of his amah with him. Cursed be the man who will open this!”

In the text the phrase “who is over the house” refers to a very important personage in the Judean government (about second to the king). His name, according to the inscription, was “. . . yahu.” Unfortunately the first part of his name is missing but many believe that the person who was buried here was none other than Shebna [yahu], the Royal Steward, whom Isaiah condemned for ‘hewing a tomb for himself on high’ – SEE Isaiah 22:15-17!

The amah (a female) mentioned in the inscription may also have been a very high functionary in the Judean government.

For a popular description of this necropolis see: Shanks, Hershel. “The Tombs of Silwan.” Biblical Archaeology Review, vol. 20, no. 3 (May/June, 1994):38-51

You also may be interested in viewing the First Temple Tombs found on the grounds of the Ecole Biblique in Jerusalem – Click Here.

Gordon’s Calvary

North of the Damascus Gate of the Old City of Jerusalem is the site of the Garden Tomb and Gordon’s Calvary.

View of the “skull” – looking northeast.  In the center of the image the “skull” is visible.  Note the modern Arab bus station in the lower right portion of the image.

“Gordon’s Calvary” Just right of center note the apparent “eye sockets” and the bridge of a nose. Unfortunately the “bridge of the nose” collapsed a few years ago.

In 1842, Otto Thenius proposed that this was Calvary (Golgotha) – the place of the skull – the site of the crucifixion of Jesus. This proposal was given prominence by the British general Charles Gordon in 1883 in combination with the nearby tomb that had been discovered in 1867. For a more general view of the area, click here.

Luke 23:32     Two other men, both criminals, were also led out with him to be executed.  33 When they came to the place called the Skull [Golgotha/Calvary], there they crucified him, along with the criminals—one on his right, the other on his left.  34 Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing.” And they divided up his clothes by casting lots.

Luke 23:35     The people stood watching, and the rulers even sneered at him.

Since the Romans normally crucified people right along the roads, so passersby would be intimidated, the crucifixion was probably not on top of Golgotha, but along side a nearby road.

Gordon’s Calvary June 1967 — after the Six Days War.

Crucified Man from Jerusalem

It is well–known from literature that the Romans crucified rebels and criminals.  In 1968, an ossuary (bone box; see below) was found, among others, in a tomb in north Jerusalem in which were the bones of a 28 year old man and those of a child.

This is a replica of a right heel bone of a 28 year old man who was crucified in Jerusalem prior to its in AD 70. This replica is presented in the Israel Museum.

A 4.3 inch nail penetrated the right heel bone of the man.  A piece of wood was placed on each side of the heel prior to the pounding of the nail to affix the person to a cross.

The skeletal remains of the man with the nail in his heel bone were found in this ossuary that was discovered north of Jerusalem.

Clearly visible is the Hebrew writing of the name “Yehohanan son of Hagkol.”  Note the two clear lines.  Above and to the right of the name “Yehohanan,” in the first line, is another faint inscription (click on image to enlarge to view inscription).

A diagram in the Israel Museum.

The above picture represents a scholarly reconstruction of how Yehohanan son of Hagkal was crucified.  Note how his arms are tied to the cross—no nails were found in his hands or wrists.  In contrast, Jesus of Nazareth’s hands were nailed to the cross—Thomas wanted to see the “mark of the nails in his hands” (John 20:25).


Revision — In a PBS program on Jesus, (aired 4 April 2017) the heel bone with nail were taken out of a small storage box located in a huge warehouse.  Thus, it does not appear that the original comment (deleted) regarding its “location” was correct.

For a convenient description of this find see pp 318–22 in Clyde E. Fant and Mitchell G. Reddish, Lost Treasures of the Bible — Understanding the Bible Through Archaeological Artifacts in World Museums. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2008.

The Six Days War — Fifty Years Ago Today (June 5, 1967)

Fifty years ago today, 5 June 1967, according to the Gregorian Calendar, the Six Days War began.  At the time my wife Mary and I were students at the Institute of Holy Land Studies (now the Jerusalem University College) which then was located in a Christian Missionary Alliance building on 55 Street of the Prophets.  Much has been written about this war (see below for a great book on the subject) but I thought I would share eight pictures that I took at that time.

The spring class of 1967 at the Institute of Holy Land Studies (now “Jerusalem University College”) at 55 Street of the Prophets in then west Jerusalem.

In the center middle Gorgina “Snook” Young and behind her, to the right, Dr. G. Douglas Young (founder and visionary of the Institute of Holy Land Studies). Carl Rasmussen (red shirt on left) content provider to this site, and his wife Mary, blue dress front left.  Below and to the right of Dr. Young, Dr. Donald Dayton. Back left, Dr. Paul Ferris and below him to the right his wife Lois.

There were no “bomb shelters” in our area so we gathered in the lowest level of our three–story building.  Most of the other houses in the area were one–story tall, so the neighbors gathered in our building for protection.

The well-dressed lady with the poodle is Gorgina “Snook” Young, the wife of the founder of the IHLS, Dr. G. Douglas Young in our “shelter.”

The first night of the war the shelling was rather intense in our area.  Some plaster was falling off the walls but we were never directly hit.

Makeshift sleeping conditions in the basement.  My wife Mary is on the right side of the image.  The dresser is positioned to help prevent shattering glass from hitting the area.

Jerusalem city buses (that had transported troops who were fighting in the Old City and elsewhere). Note the blacked out headlights.

The Israel Defense Forces had called up all kinds of civilian vehicles to transport troops.

Looking down at one of the army vehicles outside our building.

During the war some of the Israeli troops rested during the daylight hours.  We offered them refreshing juice (mitz).

My wife Mary at the entrance to the YMCA in “West Jerusalem.”

The “joke” in Mary’s family is that two of her brothers served in the USA military, but Mary has been though 2 wars (yes, we were in Israel for the Yom Kippur War).

Sandbags in the windows of the hospital next to our school.

Sidelight: during the (1967) war Mary and I went to help at a hospital called Misgav Ladach.  Later, in 1977, our third son Andrew was born in that same hospital!

For a well–researched (and written) book on the war see Oren, Michael B. Six Days of War — June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

And for a recently disclosed Israeli Go Nuclear Option see Here  (I am glad we missed this one!).