Category Archives: Jerusalem

A Jerusalem Synagogue Building from Jesus’ Time?

In 1913 Raymond Weill excavated in the “City of David” and found a large limestone block—ca. 30 in. x 16 in.—that contained a clear 10 line Greek inscription.

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“Theodotus Synagogue Inscription” found in Jerusalem. Click on image to Enlarge and/or Download.

The inscription reads:

“Theodotos, son of Vettenos, priest and head of the synagogue, son of the head of the synagogue, who was also the son of the head of the synagogue, built the synagogue for the reading of the Law and for the study of the precepts, as well as the hospice [inn or temporary residence] and the chambers and the bathing–establishment, for lodging those who need them, from abroad; it (the synagogue) was founded by his ancestors and the elders and the Simonides.” (Translation from a sign in Israel Museum where the object is on display)

Most scholars date the inscription to prior to AD 70—that is before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem.  If this dating is correct, then this inscription provides clear contemporary evidence of at least one synagogue building in Jerusalem even while the Temple was still standing!

The term “synagogue” is used 43 times in the Gospels in association with the ministry of Jesus.  In one instance, Luke 7:1–8, there is a clear reference to a building—not merely a “gathering.”  But archaeologically, not many first century AD synagogue buildings have been found—thus the importance of a synagogue building being mentioned in this first century inscription.

According to this inscription it is also clear that the Torah was read and the “precepts” were studied (= teaching of the commandments) in the synagogue.

Note, that there is no mention of prayers and/or singing!  Note too that neither praying nor singing are mentioned in Jesus’ experience in the synagogue in Nazareth (Luke 4:16–30), nor in Paul’s experience in the synagogue of Pisidian Antioch, ca. AD 37 (Acts 13:14ff).

In addition there was an “inn” with auxiliary rooms and installations near the Jerusalem synagogue.  This was for the use of Jewish pilgrims from “abroad”—note the 15 different people groups that were in Jerusalem on Pentecost (Acts 2:7–12).


For an accessible discussion of this inscription see:   Fant, Clyde E., and Mitchell G. Reddish, “Theodotus Synagogue Inscription,” pp. 358–60.   Lost Treasures of the Bible — Understanding the Bible Through Archaeological Artifacts in World Museums. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2008.  They also have provided a translation of the inscription on page 358.

For a detailed discussion of this inscription see:  Kloppenborg, John S.     “The Theodotos Synagogue Inscription and the Problem of First –Century Synagogue Buildings.” Pages 236–82 in Jesus and Archaeology. Edited by James H. Charlesworth. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2006.

Mysterious Bridge

Many of you have traveled across the Aijalon Valley (where the moon stood still; Joshua 10:12) and have seen the massive bridge that crosses the valley.

AijalonBridge

High Speed Railroad Bridge across the Aijalon Valley.

The folk over at Ynetnews have posted an informative article, “Travelling the tracks to connect Israel’s largest two cities,” that describes the bridges and tunnels for the high speed railroad from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.  It will only take 28 minutes for the journey at speeds up to 100 miles per hour!

Bridge

Aijalon Bridge Detail — Photo: Sasson Tiram

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Football/Soccer on the Temple Mount (Haram esh–Sharif)?

The folk over at HaAretez newspaper have published an article on how more Jews are more frequently visiting the most sacred site for Jews—the Temple Mount—the place where the First and Second Temples stood.

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Muslim School Children Playing Football/Soccer on the Haram esh–Sharif
Using the Mihrab (that directs worshipers towards Mecca during prayer) as a Goal
Click on Image to Enlarge/Download

It mentions that in recent weeks the police “…the police prevented Palestinian children from playing soccer on the mount….”

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Muslim man praying facing towards Mecca on the Haram esh–Sharif
Click on Image to Enlarge/Download

The Haram esh–Sharif is the third most sacred site for Muslims—after Mecca and Medina—and here, it is said, that Mohamed made his night journey to the “distant place.”

For more images of “Daily Life” on the Haram esh-Sharif (aka, Temple Mount) Click Here.

Tomb of Jesus to Be Revealed

I cannot believe that this is going to happen in my lifetime!  The Christian communities that control the Church of the Holy Sepulcher have agreed to take apart the aedicule that encases what is believed to be the tomb of Jesus—beginning in April 2016!

view-from-above

View looking down from the dome of the rotunda on to the structure that covers the Tomb of Jesus. This structure is the most recent of a series, from the time of Constantine that have enshrined the tomb of Jesus. It was constructed after the great fire of 1808 and was completed in 1810.

The New York Times has an extensive article on this topic that informs this post.

exterior

View looking south at the northern wall of the monument that encases the Tomb of Jesus. The entrance to the tomb is from the left side of the image—behind the three large candelabra. Note the iron casing that prevents the structure from collapsing—that were put in place in 1947.

The idea is to peel away hundreds of years of the shrine’s history, clean it and put it back together.

They will take apart, slab by slab, the ornate marble shell built in 1810, during Ottoman rule of Jerusalem. The conservationists will then tackle the remains of the 12th-century Crusader shrine that lies underneath. That was erected after the Shiite ruler of Egypt, al-Hakim, destroyed the first Aedicule in 1009. The original was built by Helena, the mother of Emperor Constantine, the Christian Roman emperor who did much to elevate the status of Christianity through the empire.

Please see the link to the NY Times article for details.

For more images of this shrine and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher Click Here.

HT: Jim Monson of Biblical Backgrounds

Church of Holy Sepulcher — The Syrians and the “Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea”

While visiting the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, I had a chance to observe portions of a Syrian Jacobite Service in the “cavern-like” chapel just to the west of the Tomb of Jesus.

Carl Rasmussen Copyright and Contact

Syrian Jacobite service near the “Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea.”

Most Christian groups visiting Jerusalem will visit the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in the Old City of Jerusalem.  A few of them will visit the small cavern-like chapel that is located west of the Tomb of Jesus.  If they do, the following is what they see and many will pronounce it “uglee.”

syrian-chapel

Syrian Chapel — without a service!  Contrast the image above when it is prepared for the worship service of the Syrian Jacobites!

On the left is the wooden altar—where the priest above was serving—and in the lower right portion of the image is the low entrance into the Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea (see following).

first-century-tombs

View of two of the niches (kokhim) of a first century A.D. tomb, into which bodies were placed. The entrances were then sealed.

This tomb is entered via the Syrian Chapel and is sometimes called the “Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea.” The tradition is that Joseph of Arimathea was buried here, after he had given his original tomb for Jesus to be buried in (see, for example, John 19:38-42). For an additional example of a typical tomb from the first century A.D. – from the Mt. of Olives – click here.

I believe that “technically” this area is under the authority of the Armenians, but they permit the Syrian Orthodox to worship here.

Jerusalem: Cutting Edge High Tech?!

And you (and I) thought Jerusalem was all antiquities and ultra religious people!

Well, did you know that:

Entrepreneur Magazine named Jerusalem among its top five places outside of Silicon Valley for tech startups to launch and thrive, calling Israel’s capital a ‘flourishing center for biomed, cleantech, Internet/mobile startups, accelerators, investors and supporting service providers.’

Jerusalem has 500 companies working in tech today.
7 High-tech industrial parks
500+ Startup companies
350+ Tech Events

HT  Israel 21c.

 

Solomon’s Temple — A 3D Video (5 min)

Daniel Smith has created an informative, beautiful, video that illustrates what Solomon’s Temple looked like.  This 3D model is based upon 1 Kings 6 and 7 and uses some of the material that Leen Ritmeyer presented in his excellent book The Quest.  Ritmeyer says:

Although I don’t agree with some of the details, the video is well worth watching.

Enjoy.

HT: Leen Ritmeyer